This review by Drs. Tanya M. Laidlaw and Kathleen M. Buchheit provides an update on the existing studies of biologics as treatments for nasal polyposis and identifies potential future areas for further research. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, which is a component of the clinical triad experienced by patients with AERD, represents a heterogenous spectrum of inflammatory diseases of the sinuses, with many patients failing current standard-of-care treatment. Type 2 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-4, 5 and 13, have a role in eosinophilic respiratory inflammation in nasal polyps. Several cytokines, cytokine receptors, and other immunologic effector pathways are targets for currently available treatments and treatments under investigation for nasal polyposis, including IL-4Ra, IL-5, IL-5Ra, IL-33, IgE, and TSLP. Future studies focused on biomarker-based endotyping and responder analyses will allow for optimization of personalized treatment for patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.